Metal technology is a comprehensive technical discipline that studies the process methods of manufacturing metal parts, and plays a pivotal role in the whole machinery manufacturing and related majors as an important professional foundation course in machinery.
Metal technology has both abstract micro theory, and with the actual production of processing technology and metal materials knowledge. The purpose of teaching metal technology is to improve students’ theoretical knowledge and practical application ability. In the teaching of metal technology, teachers should take active measures to improve the quality of teaching, strengthen the cultivation of students’ ability, and promote the overall improvement of students’ theoretical knowledge level and practical application ability.
1 Cultivation of students’ independent learning ability
Self-directed learning is a modern learning method corresponding to traditional receptive learning. With students as the main body of learning, the learning goal is achieved through students’ independent analysis, exploration, practice, questioning and creation. The knowledge acquired by students during school is limited, and the work requires students to have the ability to independently acquire the required knowledge.
The ability to learn independently is directly related to the ability to acquire the required knowledge independently, and moreover, it is related to the size of achievements on the learning path. Today, with the rapid development of modern technology, people’s competence in their jobs is reflected in their ability to acquire new knowledge at any time in their work. Therefore, in the actual teaching, it is more important to cultivate students’ independent learning ability than simply transferring knowledge. Specific measures to cultivate students’ independent learning ability in metalworking teaching: Firstly, students are guided to conduct classroom independent learning. Teachers should be clear about the key knowledge and difficult knowledge of each chapter of the textbook.
During the teaching process, point out the scope of learning to guide students to think and read in the classroom, after students fully think, for the general easy to understand content can only be self-study by the students, the teacher to explain the content of the summary correction, play a role in highlighting the key points and difficulties, to discuss and answer questions. Select typical chapters, according to student requirements, combined with the textbook for class discussion, after the discussion, the teacher to summarize the summary.
Students’ learning enthusiasm will be maximized, and the interaction between teachers and students will make the classroom atmosphere more active. While improving students’ independent learning ability, teachers also get teaching information from it. Second, students are guided to conduct independent learning outside of class. For students, the time for classroom learning is limited, and the real improvement of students’ self-learning ability requires teachers to take active measures to guide students to conduct independent learning outside of class.
Out-of-class time should be fully utilized, combined with the assigned homework, so that students can read more books, so that they can learn by comparison among different approaches to problems in reference books, and then enhance their reading ability and deepen their knowledge understanding. Fig. 1 General model of self-directed learning teaching guidance.
2 Cultivation of students’ comprehensive practical ability
As a professional course with strong application, one of the most important teaching objectives of Metal Technology is to improve students’ comprehensive practical ability. The cultivation of students’ comprehensive practical ability is mainly carried out from two aspects: improving students’ ability to use technical materials and cultivating students’ hands-on ability.
First, to improve students’ ability to use technical materials.
The rational application of abundant technical materials in metal technology is a necessary means for students to improve their comprehensive practical ability and is a necessary way to learn metal technology well. Therefore, in the actual teaching process, it is especially important to instruct students how to improve their ability to use technical materials. The use of technical materials and tools such as metal materials manuals, mechanical design manuals, and heat treatment manuals requires teachers to actively guide students in the classroom. The ability to use technical materials is improved and the students’ independent learning ability is also exercised, which is conducive to the cultivation of students’ comprehensive practical skills.
Secondly, improve the students’ hands-on ability.
In the process of metalworking teaching, the cultivation of students’ hands-on ability is mainly realized through practical teaching. Teachers make reasonable use of scientific experiments according to the actual teaching, collecting common materials in daily life and so on combined with students’ practical operation to experience the theoretical content. For example, the identification of metal sparks, students own hands on the grinding wheel to identify commonly used metal materials in daily life. Figure 2 Composition of metallic material sparks. The actual operation, students will be more intuitive and accurate to the characteristics of different metal material sparks, the identification of commonly used metal materials mastered more accurately.
3 Cultivation of students’ ability to analyze and solve practical problems
Most of the students who graduate from metal technology will be engaged in technical work at the front line of production. It is their main task to take up the technical work and management of the first line of production and ensure the normal production of the enterprise. The problems to be dealt with in the field are related to the actual situation and need clear answers. The basic ability of field technicians is to be able to make correct analysis and judgment on field problems and to solve them.
The cultivation of students’ ability to analyze and solve practical problems requires schools to continuously strengthen cooperation with relevant enterprises and to enhance students’ internship in enterprises. Strengthen the cooperation between schools and related enterprises. Cooperation between schools and relevant enterprises provides a good environment and important resources for cultivating students’ ability to analyze and solve practical problems. For example, in the case of drawing heat treatment process curves for parts, after students give solutions through theoretical knowledge, they find out their own shortcomings by comparing actual solutions in enterprises.
On the other hand, students are allowed to go to the actual production line to actually feel the processing process, so that the theoretical knowledge they have learned can be reacquainted in the internship and provide guidance to students in the future, so that students can actually improve their analytical and problem-solving ability under the alternating effect of theory and practice.