The development of fabricated steel structures
The so-called fabricated steel structure building, talking about not fabricated steel structures, but steel structure as a load-bearing structure of the fabricated building. As we all know, the steel structure is born of assembly, even if it is local spot welding, does not change the fact that its components are manufactured in factory. Therefore, the starting point of view of the problem should focus on the degree of factory prefabrication and site installation efficiency of components that constitute the whole building, not just the steel structure, which is the fundamental place to realize the industrialization of architecture.
Fabricated steel structure building in China is not a new thing, especially the recent national policy level warm wind blowing, the relevant policies around the land. But, undeniably, the status quo seems to be very different.
On the one hand, fabricated steel structures are widely used in public buildings. Since the reform and opening up, China’s steel structure has unprecedented development, especially in the field of public buildings, The steel structure building is booming, from the traditional factory buildings and multi-storey houses, extended to super-high-rise buildings, large span convention centers, stadiums, large-scale transportation buildings and so on. According to statistics, there are more than one thousand steel structure high-rise buildings with more than 200m in construction and completed at present. Steel structure public buildings in China are developing in the direction of higher, broader and lighter.
The Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development clearly proposed that by 2020, the proportion of prefabricated buildings accounted for more than 20% of new buildings; Prefab construction accounts for more than 50% of new construction by 2025. In such a big market, how much share of fabricated steel structure depends on its own technology and quality can reach the functional level of market demand.
At present, the steel structure professional design institute (room) in the design institute is very few, the high level professional designer is scarce, and the structure chief engineer, architect and equipment engineer familiar with steel structure is very short. Professional engineers and technicians and managers with international engineering experience are scarce in steel structure enterprises, high-level welders and automation equipment technicians are scarce, the technical level of detailed design and BIM application personnel is low, and industrialization engineering technicians and industrial workers are in short supply. Professional steel structure supervisors and inspectors are also insufficient.
The technical problems mainly exist in steel and structural system, envelope structure and supporting technology, engineering construction technology.
The outstanding problems in steel and structural system are: lack of safe, comfortable and economical high-performance structural system; Lack of technical standards to support high-performance steel applications.
The outstanding problems in the process of building envelope and supporting technology are as follows: three-board envelope system of steel structure residence; Steel structure fire prevention, corrosion protection, decoration integration technology; Selection of protective system for exposed steel structure.
The outstanding problems in engineering construction technology are: intelligent manufacturing system for steel structure; The whole life cycle of design, construction, production integration technology; Integration of standardization, informatization and industrialization.
Industry supporting level
At present, the fabricated building industry base is basically component factory, which has not closely cooperated with the manufacturing industry, and the complete industrial chain has not been formed. Small market supply options for accessories.
Policy and Management
The policy lacks of science, and the fabricated building has certain applicability and selectivity to the project.
In management, the industry has low barriers to entry, the supervision is not in place, and vicious competition leads to uneven quality, which has a bad impact on society.
Information technology applications
At present, the informationization support of BIM technology as the core of fabricated building is seriously insufficient.
Thinking and understanding level
In the initial stage of investment, the planning land forced drainage scheme does not consider the nature of the project and the constraints of assembly, and the design of the construction scheme is inconsistent with the standardization, which is not conducive to the implementation of the later assembly building;
In the construction stage, the cooperation and understanding of all parties involved are uneven, which restricts the exertion of the whole advantage of fabricated steel structure. Inertia thinking affects EPC innovation, and it is difficult to promote high efficiency and high quality. The distribution of responsibility, right and interest is unreasonable, the enthusiasm is insufficient, the risk of breach of contract is greater.
Solve the personnel problem strategy
We should vigorously implement the steel structure personnel strategy, establish its multi-level steel structure professional personnel training system, set up the strength of the whole society, cultivate a multi-level professional echelon to meet the market demand, It includes high-level talents (academicians, experts, design masters, chief engineers, entrepreneurs, etc.), middle-level talents (R & D personnel, designers, engineers, professional technicians, inspectors, etc.) and basic operation level talent (technical workers, industrial workers, etc.)
Scientific and educational institutions should do the following work well: increase the teaching hours and credits of steel structure course at undergraduate level, improve basic education; To increase the number of graduate students in steel structure and cultivate research talents; Development of design software, design manuals, standard atlases and training.
Strategies for solving technical problems
We should carry out innovation-driven strategy, set up special fund for steel structure research and education, and set up the innovation system of enterprises, academia and mass makers to achieve the key technological breakthrough: innovation of structure system and reform of standards; Building maintenance system and industrialization, standardization, industrialization, information integration technology; The whole life cycle of design, construction, production integration.
Solve the industrial matching strategy
Promote the transformation and upgrading of industrial structure, carry out technological innovation, improve the quality and quality of building components. Policy support should do the following work: support leading enterprises, pilot demonstration; Strengthen industrial policy support, foster new strategic enterprises; The establishment of industrial development fund to resolve the financial pressure; Adjust fiscal and taxation policies to encourage and promote the development and improvement of the market.
Strategies to address policy and management aspects
In policy formulation, management, can not be one size fits all, to give different projects flexible policy, through the demonstration of project size, shape, function, construction location, etc., suitable for engaging in prefabricated buildings, in the appropriate place.
Strategies for addressing information technology applications
Increase the promotion of BIM technology application, in the policy level to support.
Strategies for solving cognitive problems
Increase the intensity of training, publicity, make the parties involved in the whole industry chain fundamentally unified understanding.
Direction for progress
It mainly proposes five directions for advancement:
- Give play to the leading and exemplary role of the government in cultivating the steel structure market: establish an assessment and supervision mechanism, and stipulate the proportion of steel structure used in construction, municipal and infrastructure-related projects invested by the government. A certain proportion of government-led indemnificatory housing and shed reform projects will be taken out to carry out steel structure building demonstration.
- Support leading enterprises, the implementation of steel structure construction pilot projects: in the city to support the collection of steel production, design and development, construction, real estate development of the whole industrial chain of integrated services leading enterprises in steel structure, Clear assessment objectives, combined with shed change and resettlement pilot to promote the overall development of steel structure industry.
- Increase policy support, encourage enterprises to apply steel structure: in light of the actual situation of this city, formulate special policies on special funds, financial subsidies, tax concessions, financial services, land security, administrative licensing, etc. Qualified steel construction projects, developers and design units to give direct subsidies to encourage enterprises and developers of the project priority to use steel structure.
- Innovation-driven, focus on solving common technical and personnel bottlenecks: the establishment of steel structure research and development projects, Focus on breaking through technical bottlenecks in structural systems, building envelope systems, industrialization and integration of standardization, industrialization, and information technology, Break the industrial boundaries of steel, real estate, construction and other industries, reform and revise technical standards, integrate and innovate complete sets of technologies for the industrialization of green buildings with steel structures, and comprehensively improve the technical level and implementation capacity.
- Improve the industrial chain and regulatory system: integrate existing resources, with pilot projects, technology integration, management innovation as the link; Promote steel structure material selection, design, research and development, production, installation, enclosure, logistics, testing, recycling integrated construction, improve the steel structure industry chain.